Friendship: A Philosophical Reader. Bolotin, David. Cocking, Dean and Jeanette Kennett. The Journal of Philosophy Chicago: Open Court. Cooper, John. Berkeley: University of California Press. Dewey, John. Human Nature and Conduct. New York: Dover. Fan, Ruping.
Aristotle: Nicomachean Ethics
Hall, David L. Thinking Through Confucius. Kutcher, Norman. Lamb, W. Lysis, Symposium, and Gorgias.
Essay Aristotle On Friendship
Cambridge: Harvard University Press. New York: Penguin. Mullis, Eric C. Pangle, Lorraine Smith. Aristotle and the Philosophy of Friendship. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Penner, Terry and Christopher Rowe. Rorty, Amelie O.
Schwarzenbach, Sibyl A. Sim, May. Remastering Morals with Aristotle and Confucius. Sherman, Nancy.
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With regard to lovers, the friendship often fades away after the prime of youth is gone since the sight of the beloved no longer brings pleasure. Yet if the lovers are alike in character the friendship may last much longer. Love-affairs based in what is useful are even less-enduring than those based on pleasure. Only the friendship of good men is not harmed by slander.
Aristotle: The Three Kinds Of Friendship
True friendship is that between good men just because they are good; all other friendships are only called friendship by analogy. Bad men are friends either for the sake of pleasure or usefulness, while good men are friends for the sake of each other, and they are friends without qualification. Distance does not break a friendship but impedes its exercise. For real friendship, however, living near each is important. Friendship in the highest degree is that between good men.
Friendship is not a feeling, but a disposition, because it requires intention. Young men become friends much more quickly and easily than older men, although the latter may still be well-disposed toward others. It is impossible to have a perfect friendship with many people, because such a friendship takes a long time to build and requires a lot of time to maintain.
But one may have many friends on the basis of usefulness or pleasure. Friendship based on pleasure is higher than that based on usefulness. Another kind of friendship is that in which one of the parties is superior, such as the friendship between a parent and a child.
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In these relationships the two friends give and receive different things and also have different types of affection toward each other. Equality according to justice and equality according to friendship are different. Because most people wish to be liked more than to like, most people like flatterers, who are friends in an inferior position. Being liked by someone is akin to being honored by him. People like to be honored by good men in order to assure their own good opinion of themselves. However, people enjoy being liked not for the sake of something else but for its own sake.
Friendship also seems to be chosen for its own sake, but it seems to depend more on liking than on being liked, as in the case of a mother's love for a child in spite of the child's response. Friendship depends more on loving than on being loved. Thus loving is the virtue of a friend. It is those who have this disposition to love according to merit who are enduring friends. This disposition is also that which allows unequals to be friends, for through this disposition they can be equalized.
Friendship and Aristotle
Good men neither err nor allow their friends to err. Wicked men tend to have short friendships based on enjoying each other's evil habits. Friendships based on usefulness or pleasure last only as long as the relationship is useful or pleasant. Friendships based on useful usually arise between those of contrary needs.
Both friendship and justice seem to be concerned with the same things and the same people, and every association involves a mix of justice and friendship. The degree of injustice of a harm done to another depends on the degree of friendship that exists between the two people. Political associations are formed for the sake of the expedient, and all other associations are a subdivision of this. The kinds of friendship that exists among those in the association corresponds to the type of association. There are three forms of government and their corresponding deviations.
The three good forms of government in order from best to least good are kingship, aristocracy and timocracy or democracy , and the three deviations are, respectively, tyranny, oligarchy and mob rule. Of the three deviations, tyranny is the worst, and mob rule is the least evil. Kingship is somewhat like a father's rule of a family. Tyranny is like the rule of master over his slaves. In aristocracy people rule based on merit, in timocracy they rule based on honor, and in oligarchy they rule based on wealth. Friendship in each form of government exists to the extent that justice exists.
A king is a friend to his subjects because he wishes to make them good. In aristocracy the friendship is by virtue of a relationship of superiority based on merit, and in timocracy there is friendship based on equality. There is little friendship in the deviant forms of government. Of the three corrupt forms of government, friendship is mostly likely to arise under mob rule.
Parents love their children as they love themselves, and children love their parents because their being comes from them.